Debra's Top Firewise Succulents

Succulent varieties that stand up to the flames

The information on this page has been excerpted and used by fire protection agencies as far away as South Africa and Australia. You're welcome to do so, too---all I ask is credit and, if possible, a link to this site.

My top firewise succulents are quite common and start easily from cuttings. If you live in a fire-prone, backcountry area, consider them one more weapon in your arsenal against wildfire, ideally by planting them around your property's perimeter.

Disclaimer: Growing succulents does NOT guarantee a house won’t burn during a wildfire. These plants that by definition store water in their leaves and are slow to catch fire, merely serve as one more protective measure. Succulents really do have to surround a house, as you can see in my video: "Succulents as Firebreak" (4:32). Homeowners have told me they had a lot of succulents and, sadly, their homes burned regardless.

According to Cal Fire, "a wildfire-front passes within 10 to 15 minutes."

In my video, Do Succulents Burn? (6 min.), you'll see what common succulents look like after exposure to flames for 5 to 12 minutes. Unlike the oak and green bamboo branches we test for comparison, which burn immediately, the succulents we placed on the fire pit charred but didn't catch fire. They include jade, aloe, aeonium, firesticks, elephant’s food and paddle cactus, all of which store water in fleshy leaves and are good landscape plants for fire-prone regions of California.

In combination, these readily available succulents make beautiful, low-water landscape plants. This garden, for example, originated entirely from cuttings:

Succulent firebreak garden (c) Debra Lee Baldwin

Opuntia (paddle cactus)

The thicker the better. If you wince at the thought of having cactus in your garden, look for spineless or near-spineless varieties. They do exist, and they don't draw blood. Those rounded, upright pads make a nice counterpoint to more finely textured plants, succulent and otherwise.


Mound-forming Aloe arborescens is the heroic succulent that "saved" the home of Rob and Suzy Schaefer during the devastating wildfires of 2007. It sends up orange-red, torchlike flower spikes in midwinter.


There are numerous varieties of these rosette succulents. The best ones for fire resistance are multi-branching shrubs.


Plain old green jade didn't burn during the wildfire that threatened the Schaefer home, but rather it cooked. And like the aloes, its leaves turned putty-colored and collapsed. If you think jade is boring, you may not be aware of its many cultivars. Some are striped cream-and-green; turn yellow-orange-red when grown in full sun; have silvery-gray leaves rimmed with red; or have intriguing tubular or wavy leaves.

Euphorbia tirucalli 'Sticks on Fire'

Highly ornamental with bright orange, upright stems, this makes an excellent fire barrier, to 7 feet in height. Downsides are it's frost tender and its milky sap is caustic.

Succulent firebreak garden

Above: Photo by homeowner Camille Newton of her succulent garden immediately after the 2017 Lilac Fire. Orange 'Sticks on Fire' are prominent. Burgundy rosettes at middle right are aeoniums. Watch my "Succulents as Firebreak" video of Camille's garden.

Portulacaria afra (elephant bush)

Succulent firebreak

Portulacaria afra in ground

This plant is shrub-like, and yes, elephants really do eat it in South Africa. In fact, the plant benefits from being stomped on because pieces root readily. The variegated variety is less vigorous and more ornamental than the common green species.

Related Info

Succulents stop fire (c) Debra Lee Baldwin

How Succulents Protected a Home from Wildfire

Such reports aren’t unprecedented. Suzy Schaefer’s succulent garden in Rancho Santa Fe “saved our home,” she told me (and national media) after the Witch Creek Fire. I had heard of others as well. Even so, I was skeptical. True, succulents tend to cook rather than burn and don’t transmit flames. But wildfire is so intense it melts metal…

Fire, Succulents and South Africa

Like the American West, Australia and elsewhere, Africa is having an increase in devastating wildfires. Numerous succulents are native to the continent, and in the south the climate is similar to that of coastal and southern California. Recently I heard from Talfryn Harris, a fire manager in Johannesburg who was working on a presentation for…

Portulacaria afra Minima and Variegata (c) Debra Lee Baldwin

Portulacaria afra (Elephant Bush): Photos, Varieties, Cultivation, Uses

Portulacaria afra: Uses, Photos and Varieties Native to South Africa, elephant bush thrives outdoors in warm, sunny climates such as CA, Arizona, Florida and Hawaii See All Succulent Types Aeonium Agaves Aloes Cactus Crassula Echeveria Euphorbias Ice Plants Kalanchoe Portulacaria Senecio About Portulacaria afra Portulacaria afra (elephant’s food, elephant bush, spekboom) thrives in warm, sunny climates.…


On this website

Firewise Landscaping - Find out how to use succulents in the landscape to protect your property from wildfire.



In Designing with Succulents (2nd edition, p. 107), I tell how my husband and I were evacuated, and how the succulent garden on the cover of the book's first edition "saved" a home in Rancho Santa Fe. Ten years later, during the 2017 Lilac Fire, Camille Newton (whose garden in Bonsall, CA is on page 51 of the 2nd edition) had a similar experience [read more]. 


Do Succulents Burn? (6 min.) We try to catch a variety of succulents on fire with surprising results. A must-see for residents of fire-prone areas of California.

Succulents as Firebreak (4:31) See the TV interview of Dr. Camille Newton of Bonsall, CA and myself after her succulent garden protected her home during a wildfire.


From my Los Angeles Times article, "Did Succulents Save Her Home?" ~ "SUCCULENTS have soared in popularity recently because they’re drought-tolerant, easy-care and just plain cool to look at, and now there’s another compelling reason to grow them: They’re fire-retardant. During last month’s wildfires, succulents — which by definition store water in plump leaves and stems — apparently stopped a blaze in its tracks..." [Read more]